This paper provides two developments for reducing the production cost of back-contact modules. The first cost reduction potential is realised by replacing the conductive copper layer with aluminium with a very thin and locally applied copper coating using cold spray technology and the second comes from reduction of encapsulant usage.
This paper examines a few specific challenges in integrated PV products, especially integrated concepts on buildings and infrastructure.
This paper investigates new approaches to enhance recovery of valuable materials during the recycling of crystalline Si (cSi) PV modules. The recycling of out-of-specs, damaged or end-of-life cSi PV modules will gradually become more important for PV suppliers and recyclers. Also recycling can help to further reduce carbon and environmental footprint of cSi PV. Two approaches to enhance recyclability of frame are tested, glass, and silicon. The research was based on ECN’s conductive back-contact module technology.
Photovoltaic solar energy (PV) is expected to play a key role in the future global sustainable energy system. It has demonstrated impressive developments in terms of the scale of deployment, cost reduction and performance enhancement, most visibly over the past decade. In this paper it is argued, however, that in view of actual developments in PV over the past few decades there are good reasons to adopt another approach, that does more justice to the role and potential of existing and new PV concepts and technologies.
This paper compares the impact of financial conditions on the cost of electricity generation across six renewable and three fossil-based technologies in 46 African countries. This paper also demonstrates that, once ambitious climate policies are in place, reducing financing costs for renewables could be an efficient way to lower greenhouse gas emissions.
This policy brief presents a number of considerations related to integrating variable renewable power, including solar, into a power grid, looks at how these relate to the Indonesian energy context, and offers direction to prepare for future integration of significant levels of solar and wind energy in emerging power grids.